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There are several types of welding processes. They are MIG Welding, TIG Welding and Stick Welding.
Each of this process has its benefit and limitation. Let's take a look at MIG Welding.
MIG Welding uses a wire welding electrode on a spool that is fed automatically at a constant pre-selected speed. With MIG, once you pull the trigger of the welding gun, a few different things will happen. First, the gas starts flowing, then the wire begins feeding and lastly the arc starts. The arc which is created by an electrical current between the base metal and the wire, will melt the wire and joins it with the base, producing a high-strength weld. MIG welding is clean, easy and can be used on both thin and thicker plate metals.
There is also a non-gas MIG welding method. Instead of using solid wire, non-gas MIG welding uses flux core wire. Flux creates a gas shield for the welding site as the flux is burned. Preventing welding sites from oxidising is crucial to forming a strong weld.
TIG Welding also is known as Tungsten Inert Gas is an arc welding process that uses a non-combustible tungsten electrode to produce the weld. The tungsten and weld puddle is protected and cooled with an inert gas. The usual inert gas used is Argon. TIG process uses an electric torch where you hand feed a filler rod into the molten puddle. TIG welding is most commonly used to weld thin sections of alloy steel, stainless steel and nonferrous metals such as aluminium, magnesium and copper alloys. This process gives the welder a greater control over the weld compared to other welding processes allowing for durable, high-quality welds. TIG welding is more complicated and challenging to master.
Lastly is stick welding. Many years ago, most welders learned to weld using an arc welder. This is the most popular method for most home-shop welding needs. This process uses an electric current flowing from a gap between the metal and the welding stick. This is the most economical welding method and provides the ability to create an effective bond on rusty or dirty metals. But, this method is limited to thinner metals, required frequent rod changing, emits spatter, and the welds need to be cleaned upon completion.